PARTITION OF BENGAL, 1905
Reasons for Partition
Largest Province in area, difficult to govern as one unit e.g.: communication >Largest Population, Bigger than entire British population.
British Muslims relationship had deteriorated since 1857, partition to improve relations
Hindus were becoming stronger in Bengal especially with the help of congress
East Bengal was in weak economic condition, this could be improved (Chittagong seaport, infrastructure, Jute Mill/industrial setup)
Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Poona ignited Hindu Nationalism, this needed countering
In 1870’s, many secret societies sprung up against British, 1897 British officer assassinated.
Partition to reduce Hindu power
Reasons for reversal:
- Lord Minto assassination attempt – British feared for officer’s lives
- Swadeshi movement crippled British economy
- Congress, largest political party in India supported reversal
SIMLA DEPUTATION, 1906
Hindus protested, Muslims too few to match protest – reversal thus likely
Congress worked primarily for Hindu interests (to protect Political Rights)
Hindus demanded Hindi be made national language instead of Urdu (to protect cultural rights) >Extremist Groups like Arya Samaj did militant activities, converted Non Hindus (to protect religious rights).
New Liberal Government in India was willing to give India elected seats in the council
British Acceptance of Separate Electorates = Trying to work with Muslims and improve relations
Acceptance of Separate Electorates, gulf between two communities grew, couldn’t live together, two nation theory strong.
Success of this made Muslims realize their political strengths. Wanted their demands to be accepted.
Reasons for formation: (All points of Simla Deputation)
1906 Congress President refused to accept Muslims as significant community, Muslims thus needed right protection, second largest community of India
Q: Was Pro Hindu attitude of the Congress the most important reason for the formation of Muslim league in 1906? Explain your answer
L3: Just the one Pro Hindu attitude of Congress point
L4: All Muslim League points
MORLEY MINTO REFORMS – 1909
Reasons for Congress’s opposition of these reforms:
Number of Indians in councils was increased, but only had advisory role
Acceptance of Muslim demand of separate electorates was disliked
Muslims were given extra seats and more political status
Congress expected partition of Bengal reversal to happen in these reforms
Q: How Successful was British Muslim relationship between 1906 and 1911? Explain your answer.
Partition of Bengal
Muslim League Formation
Morley Minto electorates
Morley Minto seats
Muslims didn’t participate in Swadeshi movement
Partition of Bengal was reversed
Q: Was Partition of Bengal the most important event between 1906 and 1911 where Hindu Muslim relationship was affected? Explain
L3: >Partition of Bengal
L4: >Other Reforms
Muslim League formed
Morley Minto Reforms
Partition of Bengal Reversal
B/W 1911-1914 Hindu – Muslim relations increased
After P O B reversal the Muslim League revisited Morley Minto reforms, criticized because no say in government
In 1913 Muslim League changed their aim from British Loyalty to Self-Rule.
WAR YEARS 1914-1918
Mixed views during WW1
Pro-British sympathized because attack on British was indirect attack on India since British Empire part
Others thought that they would get concessions if they fight for British
Some Anti British thought British wouldn’t give concessions easily, pressurized British for self-rule through activities e.g.: Lala Hardayal, Mutiny Party
British Fought WW1 against Turkey, made Muslims hesitate against fellow Muslim
LUCKNOW PACT – 1906
Reasons why it was signed:
(Points of improved relations 1911-1914)
To achieve common aims and pressurize British
British Policy of Repression against Indians, worried Congress and League
Jinnah, member of Congress and League was a believer in their unity and convinced them to hold sessions together for Indian’s sake.
British deliberately leaked/let it known that there were going to make reforms, Indians wanted to let their demands be known
Why it was important:
Congress agreed to demands of separate electorate. Congress willing to support Muslims
Congress agreed to extra seats, gave Muslims more seats than population
Congress agreed to no law affecting the community being passed until 3 quarters supported it – showing support for minorities
MONTAGUE CHELMSFORD REFORMS
Why Indians opposed this:
Council of princely states that was purely advisory/A talking shop
Viceroy could change laws for the “safety” of the Indians, this could be exploited and gave less power
System of Diarchy laws made by Indians in transferred subjects could be amended or removed
Number of voters increased but still low -2%- because of high property qualification
ROWLATT ACT – 1919
Introduced to counter nationalism. Indians could be arrested without warrant, detention without bail, govt could tell people where to live. Unfair rights, both Communities opposed this, thus closer. Jinnah left imperial legislative council, Gandhi launched Hartal.
AMRITSAR MASSACRE – 1919
General Reginald Dyer fired upon a peaceful protest in Jalianwala bagh, 1600 rounds fired. 1200 injured, 400 kill. Hunter’s committee to set up to investigate his actions.
Gave Hindus and Muslims a common enemy against the British thus united, both denounced them.
Q: Where the Montford Reforms the only event that affected British Muslims relations in 1919?
L3: Montford Reforms, 4 points.
L4: Rowlett Act, Amritsar Massacre, Hunter’s committee
Q: How successful was Hindu-Muslim relations b/w 1905 and 1919? Explain your answer.
Reversal of Partition of Bengal
Morley Minto Reforms Simla Deputation
Extremist Hindu Groups
Congress support of Hindu as national language
Q: How successful were British Muslim relations during 1905 – 1919?
Partition of Bengal
Partition of Bengal Reversal
Morley Minto Reforms view change
Reasons for starting the Khilafat Movement:
British captures Turkish Empire this included Makkah, Madinah. Launched to protect these areas
Sultan of Turkey dethroned, immense figure in Muslim world.
Germany and Austria had been punished through several treaties, worries about Turkey being treated in a similar manner
The Muslims supported the British but did not wish to fight against their Muslim Brothers.
Some Muslim Leaders thought that Indian Muslims would also be punished through reforms, etc.
British had previously promised good treatment of Turkey Empire.
Hindu supported the Muslims but wanted Self Rule
Reasons for Failure:
Delegation of Muslim members (under Maulana Muhammid Ali Johar)’s demands regarding Turkey were not accepting.
British policy of repression against supporters. 30,000 arrested.
Hijrat movement failure
Leaders, Ali Brothers arrested on Sedition charges
Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement spilled over to violence, Chauri Chaura incident. Thus ended non co-operation.
Disunity among aims, Hindus only wanted Self Rule
Kemal Ataturk took over Turkey, abolished Caliphate system.
Reasons for Hijrat Movement:
Some Muslim Leaders like Maulana Abdul Kamal believed that India was Dar ul Harb
Leaders of the Khilafat Movement realized that British would not accept demands, so to Pressurize British and Ruin their international image
Muslims who migrated weren’t in good economic condition and were promised fertile land in Afghanistan.
Reasons for failure of Hijrat Movement:
Muslims who migrated couldn’t enter Afghanistan because closed borders so forced back.
The movement itself was very ill planned, no leaders, no Afghani govt consulted,
Jinnah did not believe in this movement saying that Politics should remain in India
Precursor to Independence ~ Large Scale Hindu and Muslim nationalistic feelings/want for self-rule
Muslims learnt political strength and how to do large scale movements unlike small previous methods
Realized mistakes they made in KM which led to downfall
Hindu Withdrawal from movement gave credence to the “Two Nation Theory”
Deteriorated British Muslim relations on a large scale, political demands reform acceptance unlikely
Many Muslims migrated to Afghanistan, came back to economic misery
Muslims pulled children from schools, weakening education
Turkish – Kemal Ataturk – themselves abolished the caliphate
Q Was the Khilafat Movement the most important event between 1920 and 1929 that affected Hindu Muslim Relations?
L3: >Khilafat movement, (early on together, ended with Hindu withdrawal)
L4: >Hindu nationalistic groups activities
Congress refused Muslim demands of provincial autonomy even in Muslim majority areas
Simon Commission of 1927, opposed by BOTH
All party conference against commission
NEHRU REPORT 1928
Suggested stronger center with limited provincial Autonomy, relations down since Muslims interested in provincial autonomy
Hindu as national Language
Muslims shouldn’t be given extra seats in the council
Importance to Pakistan movement:
Same points as above, with reference to Hindu – Muslim estrangement.
FOURTEEN POINTS OF JINNAH
Tried to amend the Nehru report… resulted in a “Parting of the Ways”
Response to Nehru Report, DEADLOCK since Muslims = No Nehru Report, Congress = No 14 points
Nehru Report’s Anti Muslim/Pro-Hindu countered
Jinnah knew British were going to introduce Reforms, so informed them of Muslim demands
SIMON COMISSION – 1927
Reasons for it being sent.
Growth of Communalism in India and Hindu-Muslim riots. Sent to negotiate and restore peace between two parties
Montford Report 1919 promised reforms after 10 years
British Conservative Government feared losing against Labor party
Q Was Lucknow Pact of 1916 only beacon of hope b/w 1915 and 1930?
L3: Lucknow Pact
L4: >Montford Report Amritsar Massacre
Khilafat Movement (Start)
Q: How successful was Hindu – Muslim relationship b/w 1920 and 1929
Withdrawal of Khilafat Movement
ALLAHABAD ADDRESS – 1930
Importance to Pakistan Movement:
Iqbal gave Idea of Muslim Homeland, Strengthened Two Nation Theory
Nehru report was anti Muslim, Iqbal gave clear cut goal in its opposition
He was source of Inspiration for future Muslim Leaders, accepted by Jinnah in 1940 resolution
Iqbal’s poetry tried to awaken Indian Muslims
ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES – 1930 TO 1932
Muslim criticized Simon Commission Report (No extra seats, no Sindh from Bombay separation)
Deadlock between League and Congress, Nehru report and 14 points
Previous Reforms rejected by Indians because no Indian Opinion Taken
Reasons for 1st RTC being unsuccessful
Congress refused to attend because reforms were not guaranteed
Why they were important for the Muslims of India
1st RTC, British agreed on provincial autonomy (14 points demand) (helped Muslim in Muslim majority areas)
2nd RTC: British agreed to make Sindh and NWFP separate provinces (good for Muslims)
3rd RTC Gandhi took a hard line, rejected 14 points. Gulf between two communities widened
Reasons for 2nd RTC being unsuccessful
1931 Labor Party lost power, new coalition govt less likely to give reforms
Gandhi took a hardline and refused minority rights
Gandhi wanted Nehru Report in Constitution, Muslims wanted 14 points. Disagreement
Reasons for 3rd RTC being unsuccessful
Lord Irwin replaced with Lord Willington who was less willing to make reforms, less Indian thus wanted to come. Only 46 delegates came.
Congress restarted Non Co-operation movement and leaders Gandhi and Nehru arrested. Thus >Congress leaders didn’t attend
Jinnah went to voluntary exile after 2nd RTC because disappointed, thus not invited and did not attend.
Q: How Successful were the RTC’S? Explain your answer.
Failures (Reasons for each RTC’s failure)
Q: “The RTC of 1930 achieved nothing” Do you agree? Explain your answer
Successes + Failures of 1930 RTC
Q: “The RTC of 1930 achieved more than the RTCs of 1931 and 1932” Explain your answer.
L3: First RTC success
L4: Failures of first RTC, Successes and Failures of RTC 1931 and 1932
CHAUDRI REHMAT ALI
Q: Why was he important to the Pakistan Movement?
Wrote “Now or Never” gave idea of separate homeland. Thus inspired Indian Muslims with Muslim Homeland goal.
Named it “Pakistan” ~ “Land of the Pure” by taking names from lands. ~ Gave name to Muslim goal
Muslim League accepted Chaudhry’s idea after Congress rule thus gave basis for Lahore
Resolution and idea of Independent Muslim Country
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT – 1935
Importance = Successes
Opposition by India reasons = Failures
Q: How Successful was the Govt of India Act of 1935? Explain your answer
Parliamentary form of govt introduced in which Indians were given representation, meant that they could negotiate with British for reforms
Also meant that British were planning to leave India since they transferred a lot of power to Indians
No Diarchy, Provincial Autonomy instead so Muslims approved.
NWFP, Sindh made into separate provinces, Muslims happy since Muslim majority areas and political strength increased
Helped draw boundaries for eventual Pakistan
Number of voters increased to 25%
These voted in 1946-45 elections and achieved Independence
Diarchy reintroduced at Central level, so Viceroy could still make, amend laws.
Despite Provincial Autonomy, British province Governor could intervene “For safety” >Still many Indians could not vote
Q: Were Jinnah’s 14 points the most important factor/event between 1928 and 1935 that strengthened Pakistan Movement? Explain your answer
L3: >14 Points
Nehru Report rejection
L4: >“Parting of the ways”
Nehru Report’s rejection of Hindi
“Now or Never”
Govt of India Act separate provinces acceptance
Why Muslim League was unsuccessful:
First major elections contested by League, lacked organization and planning because no experience
Muslim League had an image problems, leaders seen as “Aristocrats and Landlords” poor and illiterate didn’t sense any empathy thus did not vote.
Muslim League still had not passed the Lahore Resolution, majority of Muslims did not know >League’s aims. Thus voted for congress because senior and experienced party and same aim
CONGRESS RULE 1937 – 1939
Reasons for why it was so hated by the Indians and Muslims:
Hindu made official language, Muslims could not read, write this, so unemployment
Band-e-Matram asked to expel Muslims and was nationalistic Indian song, became like national song
Wardha Scheme was introduced, picture of Gandhi, cotton weaving.
Congress banned Cow slaughter, Muslims oppressed if they slaughtered cows. >Disturbances to Muslim Life: Azaan banned, Pigs pushed into mosques.
Anti Muslim riots, Muslim property, houses burned. Complaints ignored
Widdiya Mander scheme, Hindu temple as education centers, Hindu heroes were taught to Muslim Children ~ Because of this, Day of Deliverance observed, hatred of Congress rule shown. Thus gap between the two communities increased, showed they did not get together. Even Nehru commented on how little they seemed to get along.
Q: Was the celebration of the day of deliverance justified? Explain your answer.
L3: Day of deliverance.
L4: Congress tyrannies.
LAHORE RESOLUTION – 1940
Reasons for it being passed:
Congress rule was tyrannical for Muslims
Iqbal and Chaudhry Rehmat Ali gave idea of separate Homeland in early 1930s, Jinnah agreed to it only after Congress Rule.
Muslims knew that Independence had to be achieved before the British left India
CRIPPS MISSION – 1942
Why it was unsuccessful:
Cripps mission suggested that Dominion status be given to India, Congress wanted immediate power transfer
It suggested that Individual Provinces be allowed to opt out, but this would lead to Pakistan creation/Muslim Majority, so Congress opposed it.
Jinnah still rejected it since he wanted a clear cut reference to Pakistan’s creation.
It’s Importance to Pakistan’s creation:
Suggested that Individual provinces could opt out, thus SOME reference to Pakistan Movement was present
Jinnah rejected it since he desired clear cut reference to Pakistan, shows determination of Jinnah and clear cut goals
Congress demand of immediate independence alarmed League, since no Pakistan if British were not there to conduct partition before leaving.
QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT – 1942
Congress was aware that British were going to leave India, exploited British post WW2 weakness.
Cripps Mission stated that individual provinces could opt out, alarmed them since this meant >British were considering Partition
Japan was threatening British, this meant possible Indian invasion. If British left, threat of invasion would finish.
Main Leaders, Gandhi and Nehru were arrested. No guidance
British used Aerial Bombing and Machine Guns, against QIM supporters, 1000’s thus died. >Jinnah didn’t approve, since he knew no Pakistan if Independence without British being there to Partition
Congress started QIM to get general Independence and stop creation of Pakistan, alarming
Jinnah who quickened pace for Pakistan creation
Due to QIM leaders being arrested, League gained a huge advantage which it exploited to gain strength
Jinnah declared the QIM as blackmail, declaring it an attempt to take advantage of weak British condition. Jinnah supported British (important for Pakistan)
GANDHI JINNAH TALKS – 1944
Why it was unsuccessful
Gandhi wanted subjects like Defence and Foreign Affairs to be under control of central government. Jinnah wanted this in provinces
Gandhi wanted Congress and League to work for general Independence first
Gandhi rejected the two nation theory, believed that all Indians were one nation, but this was basis for Pakistan Movement
Gandhi said that of 6 declared provinces, only 3 could be made part of Pakistan since they were >Muslim majority, Punjab, Bengal and Assam should be communally divided as they were partially Muslim. Jinnah said no, since this would mean financially weak Pakistan
(last point of unsuccessful) pleased Jinnah since this should that Indians had realized that
Partition might happen
Gandhi said that Jinnah and Congress should work for general Independence first
Jinnah handled these intelligently, didn’t compromise Muslim Rights. His standing thus improved
SIMLA CONFERENCE – 1945
Congress wanted to nominate at least one Muslim member in executive council, rejected by >Jinnah since League wanted to be sole representation of Muslims in India.
Jinnah dissatisfied with parity of seats between Muslims and Hindus since Sikh and low Caste members would side with Hindus, leading to permanent Muslim minority.
Jinnah handled it intelligently, didn’t compromise Muslim rights. Thus image improved among
Muslims and support of Pakistan movement increased (can be seen in 1945-46 elections)
Deadlock between League and Congress over nomination of seats led to Wavell realizing
Partition would be necessary
Wavell suggested that an executive council be formed in which Indians would be members with viceroy as defense minister. This transfer of power showed that British were planning to leave India.
Q: During WW2 negotiations aimed at independence….
Gandhi Jinnah Talks
Q: How successful were events during WW2 in achieving independence? Explain your answer.
Successes and Failures of:
Day of Deliverance
Gandhi Jinnah Talks
Q: Which of the following was the most important in the formation of Pakistan? i) Simla Conference ii) Gandhi Jinnah talks iii) QIM
Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above?
Include importance of all these,
Q: Was Simla Conference the most important between 1940 and 1945 that helped in the formation of Pakistan? Explain your answer. L3: Simla Conference
L4: Other events; Lahore Resolution, Cripps Mission, QIM, Gandhi Jinnah Talks
Q: Gandhi – Jinnah talks were more important for formation of Pakistan than QIM? Give reasons for your answer. L3: G-J talks
L4: QIM successes
Q: How successful was the Simla Conference of 1945? 10/marks
2 successes, 3 failures.
ELECTIONS OF 1945 – 1946
Why Muslim League was so successful:
Congress Rule was tyrannical and League promised rights, so Muslims voted for the League. >League learnt from 1937 elections and thus improved planning, organization and campaigned efficiently. Thus more Muslims knew of the league.
Muslim League had passed the Lahore Resolution and started working for separate homeland,
Muslims voted as they wanted to avoid Hindu domination
League lost 1937 elections due to image problem, which they worked on by working hard in the 1940’s for Muslim rights.
Importance of these Elections:
Hindus voted for Congress/Independence, Muslims voted for League/Pakistan creation. Thus British realized that they were separate communities. Thus paved way for Pakistan.
After winning the 1946 elections, League became a stronger party with complete Muslim support, thus demands for separate homelands could not be ignored.
CABINET MISSION PLAN – 1946
Why was the Cabinet Mission Plan Unsuccessful?
It stated that India would be divided into 3 parts, (Two Muslim majority, one large Indian Majority) with full provincial autonomy and right to form own constitution. Jinnah immediately accepted as Muslim rights protected, but Nehru stated in a press conference this they were not bound to keep it once the British left, Jinnah thus immediately rejected the plan.
Was not able to close the gap between Muslims & Hindus (i.e. Partition vs United)
Suggested an All India Commission to decide outcome (Partition, or United India). Rejected by both Congress and League since both feared that the outcome would go against their demands.
Importance of Cabinet Mission Plan
Cabinet Mission negotiated with parties, found that they had different aims, thus unsuccessful since bridge between two undividable and partition would be necessary. (First point of Unsuccessfulness)
Q: How successful was the cabinet Mission plan of 1946? Explain your answer
DIRECT ACTION DAY – 1946
Importance to Pakistan formation:
In 1946 Jinnah feared the British might leave India without partition thus called for a large peaceful demonstration of Muslim feelings. Many Muslims celebrated, and made it clear that Pakistan formation demand was democratic and could not be ignored.
Hindu – Muslim clashes in Calcutta during this day, resulted in 4000 people losing their lives, British realized that these two communities could not live together peacefully.
3RD JUNE PLAN
A new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten was sent to India in 1947 to negotiate with local political parties regarding the future of India. Jinnah was adamant with his demand of Pakistan and the Viceroy was forced to accept. In the 3rd June Plan, the viceroy announced that India would be divided into two states, i.e. India and Pakistan. Jinnah’s efforts therefore bore fruit and this plan made the creation of Pakistan official.
Why Jinnah changed his stance from Hindu Muslim unity to Two Nation Theory.
Congress Rule of 1937 was tyrannical for Muslims.
Anti Muslim Nehru report suggested that Hindu should be made the official Language. >The RTC’s made him pessimistic about Hindu Muslim Unity.
Jinnah’s importance to the Pakistan Movement:
Rejection of Nehru Report
Jinnah declared the QIM black mail, felt that Congress tried to exploit poor conditions of British in WW2
Gandhi suggested that Congress and Muslim League work together, and Partition after Independence, but Jinnah was too clever to agree to this.
Jinnah worked hard to improve the image problem of the Muslims after 1937 elections, thus successful in the 1945 elections. >Direct Action day started.
There was a hint to opt out of the individual provinces of the Cripps Mission which was rejected by Jinnah since he wanted a clear reference to Pakistan.
Forced Viceroy Mountbatten to accept 3rd June Plan.