Section 2: The emergence of Pakistan 1906–47

Contents:

PARTITION OF BENGAL, 1905

Reasons for Partition

Largest Province in area, difficult to govern as one unit e.g.: communication >Largest Population, Bigger than entire British population.

British Muslims relationship had deteriorated since 1857, partition to improve relations

Hindus were becoming stronger in Bengal especially with the help of congress

East Bengal was in weak economic condition, this could be improved (Chittagong seaport, infrastructure, Jute Mill/industrial setup)

Bal Gangadhar Tilak of Poona ignited Hindu Nationalism, this needed countering

In 1870’s, many secret societies sprung up against British, 1897 British officer assassinated.

Partition to reduce Hindu power

Reasons for reversal:

  • Lord Minto assassination attempt – British feared for officer’s lives
  • Swadeshi movement crippled British economy
  • Congress, largest political party in India supported reversal

SIMLA DEPUTATION, 1906

Reasons why:

Hindus protested, Muslims too few to match protest – reversal thus likely

Congress worked primarily for Hindu interests (to protect Political Rights)

Hindus demanded Hindi be made national language instead of Urdu (to protect cultural rights) >Extremist Groups like Arya Samaj did militant activities, converted Non Hindus (to protect religious rights).

New Liberal Government in India was willing to give India elected seats in the council

Importance:

British Acceptance of Separate Electorates = Trying to work with Muslims and improve relations

Acceptance of Separate Electorates, gulf between two communities grew, couldn’t live together, two nation theory strong.

Success of this made Muslims realize their political strengths. Wanted their demands to be accepted.

MUSLIM LEAGUE

Reasons for formation: (All points of Simla Deputation)

1906 Congress President refused to accept Muslims as significant community, Muslims thus needed right protection, second largest community of India

Q: Was Pro Hindu attitude of the Congress the most important reason for the formation of Muslim league in 1906? Explain your answer

L3: Just the one Pro Hindu attitude of Congress point

L4: All Muslim League points

MORLEY MINTO REFORMS – 1909

Reasons for Congress’s opposition of these reforms:

Number of Indians in councils was increased, but only had advisory role

Acceptance of Muslim demand of separate electorates was disliked

Muslims were given extra seats and more political status

Congress expected partition of Bengal reversal to happen in these reforms

Q: How Successful was British Muslim relationship between 1906 and 1911? Explain your answer.

Successes:

Partition of Bengal

Simla Deputation

Muslim League Formation

Morley Minto electorates

Morley Minto seats

Muslims didn’t participate in Swadeshi movement

Failures:

Partition of Bengal was reversed

Q: Was Partition of Bengal the most important event between 1906 and 1911 where Hindu Muslim relationship was affected? Explain

L3: >Partition of Bengal

L4: >Other Reforms

Swadeshi movement

Muslim League formed

Morley Minto Reforms

Separate Electorates

Partition of Bengal Reversal

B/W 1911-1914 Hindu – Muslim relations increased

After P O B reversal the Muslim League revisited Morley Minto reforms, criticized because no say in government

In 1913 Muslim League changed their aim from British Loyalty to Self-Rule.

WAR YEARS 1914-1918

Mixed views during WW1

Pro-British sympathized because attack on British was indirect attack on India since British Empire part

Others thought that they would get concessions if they fight for British

Some Anti British thought British wouldn’t give concessions easily, pressurized British for self-rule through activities e.g.: Lala Hardayal, Mutiny Party

British Fought WW1 against Turkey, made Muslims hesitate against fellow Muslim

LUCKNOW PACT – 1906

Reasons why it was signed:

(Points of improved relations 1911-1914)

To achieve common aims and pressurize British

British Policy of Repression against Indians, worried Congress and League

Jinnah, member of Congress and League was a believer in their unity and convinced them to hold sessions together for Indian’s sake.

British deliberately leaked/let it known that there were going to make reforms, Indians wanted to let their demands be known

Why it was important:

Congress agreed to demands of separate electorate. Congress willing to support Muslims

Congress agreed to extra seats, gave Muslims more seats than population

Congress agreed to no law affecting the community being passed until 3 quarters supported it – showing support for minorities

MONTAGUE CHELMSFORD REFORMS

Why Indians opposed this:

Council of princely states that was purely advisory/A talking shop

Viceroy could change laws for the “safety” of the Indians, this could be exploited and gave less power

System of Diarchy laws made by Indians in transferred subjects could be amended or removed

Number of voters increased but still low -2%- because of high property qualification

ROWLATT ACT – 1919

Introduced to counter nationalism. Indians could be arrested without warrant, detention without bail, govt could tell people where to live. Unfair rights, both Communities opposed this, thus closer. Jinnah left imperial legislative council, Gandhi launched Hartal.

AMRITSAR MASSACRE – 1919

General Reginald Dyer fired upon a peaceful protest in Jalianwala bagh, 1600 rounds fired. 1200 injured, 400 kill. Hunter’s committee to set up to investigate his actions.

Gave Hindus and Muslims a common enemy against the British thus united, both denounced them.

 

Q: Where the Montford Reforms the only event that affected British Muslims relations in 1919?

L3: Montford Reforms, 4 points.

L4: Rowlett Act, Amritsar Massacre, Hunter’s committee

 

Q: How successful was Hindu-Muslim relations b/w 1905 and 1919? Explain your answer.

Successes:

Lucknow Pact

Amritsar Massacre

Rowlett Act

Hunter’s committee

Montford Report

Fails:

Swadeshi Movement

Reversal of Partition of Bengal

Morley Minto Reforms Simla Deputation

Extremist Hindu Groups

Congress support of Hindu as national language

 

Q: How successful were British Muslim relations during 1905 – 1919?

Successes:

Partition of Bengal

Swadeshi Movement

Morley Minto

Muslim League

Failures:

Partition of Bengal Reversal

Morley Minto Reforms view change

Lucknow Pact

Rowlett Act

Amritsar Massacre

KHILAFAT MOVEMENT

Reasons for starting the Khilafat Movement:

British captures Turkish Empire this included Makkah, Madinah. Launched to protect these areas

Sultan of Turkey dethroned, immense figure in Muslim world.

Germany and Austria had been punished through several treaties, worries about Turkey being treated in a similar manner

The Muslims supported the British but did not wish to fight against their Muslim Brothers.

Some Muslim Leaders thought that Indian Muslims would also be punished through reforms, etc.

British had previously promised good treatment of Turkey Empire.

Hindu supported the Muslims but wanted Self Rule

Reasons for Failure:

Delegation of Muslim members (under Maulana Muhammid Ali Johar)’s demands regarding Turkey were not accepting.

British policy of repression against supporters. 30,000 arrested.

Hijrat movement failure

Leaders, Ali Brothers arrested on Sedition charges

Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement spilled over to violence, Chauri Chaura incident. Thus ended non co-operation.

Disunity among aims, Hindus only wanted Self Rule

Kemal Ataturk took over Turkey, abolished Caliphate system.

Reasons for Hijrat Movement:

Some Muslim Leaders like Maulana Abdul Kamal believed that India was Dar ul Harb

Leaders of the Khilafat Movement realized that British would not accept demands, so to Pressurize British and Ruin their international image

Muslims who migrated weren’t in good economic condition and were promised fertile land in Afghanistan.

Reasons for failure of Hijrat Movement:

Muslims who migrated couldn’t enter Afghanistan because closed borders so forced back.

The movement itself was very ill planned, no leaders, no Afghani govt consulted,

Jinnah did not believe in this movement saying that Politics should remain in India

 

Successes:

Precursor to Independence ~ Large Scale Hindu and Muslim nationalistic feelings/want for self-rule

Muslims learnt political strength and how to do large scale movements unlike small previous methods

Realized mistakes they made in KM which led to downfall

Hindu Withdrawal from movement gave credence to the “Two Nation Theory”

 

Failures:

Deteriorated British Muslim relations on a large scale, political demands reform acceptance unlikely

Many Muslims migrated to Afghanistan, came back to economic misery

Muslims pulled children from schools, weakening education

Turkish – Kemal Ataturk – themselves abolished the caliphate

 

Q Was the Khilafat Movement the most important event between 1920 and 1929 that affected Hindu Muslim Relations?

L3: >Khilafat movement, (early on together, ended with Hindu withdrawal)

L4: >Hindu nationalistic groups activities

Congress refused Muslim demands of provincial autonomy even in Muslim majority areas

Simon Commission of 1927, opposed by BOTH

All party conference against commission

Nehru Report

14 Points

NEHRU REPORT 1928

Suggested stronger center with limited provincial Autonomy, relations down since Muslims interested in provincial autonomy

Hindu as national Language

Muslims shouldn’t be given extra seats in the council

Importance to Pakistan movement:

Same points as above, with reference to Hindu – Muslim estrangement.

FOURTEEN POINTS OF JINNAH

Why produced?

Tried to amend the Nehru report… resulted in a “Parting of the Ways”

Response to Nehru Report, DEADLOCK since Muslims = No Nehru Report, Congress = No 14 points

Nehru Report’s Anti Muslim/Pro-Hindu countered

Jinnah knew British were going to introduce Reforms, so informed them of Muslim demands

SIMON COMISSION – 1927

Reasons for it being sent.

Growth of Communalism in India and Hindu-Muslim riots. Sent to negotiate and restore peace between two parties

Montford Report 1919 promised reforms after 10 years

British Conservative Government feared losing against Labor party

 

Q Was Lucknow Pact of 1916 only beacon of hope b/w 1915 and 1930?

L3: Lucknow Pact

L4: >Montford Report Amritsar Massacre

Hunter’s committee

Rowlett Act

Khilafat Movement (Start)

Simon commission

 

Q: How successful was Hindu – Muslim relationship b/w 1920 and 1929

Successes:

Khilafat Movement

Simon Commission

Failures:

Withdrawal of Khilafat Movement

Nehru report

14 Points

Delhi Proposals

ALLAHABAD ADDRESS – 1930

Importance to Pakistan Movement:

Iqbal gave Idea of Muslim Homeland, Strengthened Two Nation Theory

Nehru report was anti Muslim, Iqbal gave clear cut goal in its opposition

He was source of Inspiration for future Muslim Leaders, accepted by Jinnah in 1940 resolution

Iqbal’s poetry tried to awaken Indian Muslims

ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES – 1930 TO 1932

Why held:

Muslim criticized Simon Commission Report (No extra seats, no Sindh from Bombay separation)

Deadlock between League and Congress, Nehru report and 14 points

Previous Reforms rejected by Indians because no Indian Opinion Taken

Reasons for 1st RTC being unsuccessful

Congress refused to attend because reforms were not guaranteed

Why they were important for the Muslims of India

1st RTC, British agreed on provincial autonomy (14 points demand) (helped Muslim in Muslim majority areas)

2nd RTC: British agreed to make Sindh and NWFP separate provinces (good for Muslims)

3rd RTC Gandhi took a hard line, rejected 14 points. Gulf between two communities widened

Reasons for 2nd RTC being unsuccessful

1931 Labor Party lost power, new coalition govt less likely to give reforms

Gandhi took a hardline and refused minority rights

Gandhi wanted Nehru Report in Constitution, Muslims wanted 14 points. Disagreement

Reasons for 3rd RTC being unsuccessful

Lord Irwin replaced with Lord Willington who was less willing to make reforms, less Indian thus wanted to come. Only 46 delegates came.

Congress restarted Non Co-operation movement and leaders Gandhi and Nehru arrested. Thus >Congress leaders didn’t attend

Jinnah went to voluntary exile after 2nd RTC because disappointed, thus not invited and did not attend.

 

Q: How Successful were the RTC’S? Explain your answer.

Successes (Importance)

Failures (Reasons for each RTC’s failure)

 

Q: “The RTC of 1930 achieved nothing” Do you agree? Explain your answer

Successes + Failures of 1930 RTC

 

Q: “The RTC of 1930 achieved more than the RTCs of 1931 and 1932” Explain your answer.

L3: First RTC success

L4: Failures of first RTC, Successes and Failures of RTC 1931 and 1932

 

CHAUDRI REHMAT ALI

Q: Why was he important to the Pakistan Movement?

Wrote “Now or Never” gave idea of separate homeland. Thus inspired Indian Muslims with Muslim Homeland goal.

Named it “Pakistan” ~ “Land of the Pure” by taking names from lands. ~ Gave name to Muslim goal

Muslim League accepted Chaudhry’s idea after Congress rule thus gave basis for Lahore

Resolution and idea of Independent Muslim Country

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT – 1935

Importance = Successes

Opposition by India reasons = Failures

 

Q: How Successful was the Govt of India Act of 1935? Explain your answer

Successes:

Parliamentary form of govt introduced in which Indians were given representation, meant that they could negotiate with British for reforms

Also meant that British were planning to leave India since they transferred a lot of power to Indians

No Diarchy, Provincial Autonomy instead so Muslims approved.

NWFP, Sindh made into separate provinces, Muslims happy since Muslim majority areas and political strength increased

Helped draw boundaries for eventual Pakistan

Number of voters increased to 25%

These voted in 1946-45 elections and achieved Independence

Failures:

Diarchy reintroduced at Central level, so Viceroy could still make, amend laws.

Despite Provincial Autonomy, British province Governor could intervene “For safety” >Still many Indians could not vote

Q: Were Jinnah’s 14 points the most important factor/event between 1928 and 1935 that strengthened Pakistan Movement? Explain your answer

L3: >14 Points

Nehru Report rejection

L4: >“Parting of the ways”

Nehru Report’s rejection of Hindi

Allahabad Address

“Now or Never”

Govt of India Act separate provinces acceptance

1937 ELECTIONS

Why Muslim League was unsuccessful:

First major elections contested by League, lacked organization and planning because no experience

Muslim League had an image problems, leaders seen as “Aristocrats and Landlords” poor and illiterate didn’t sense any empathy thus did not vote.

Muslim League still had not passed the Lahore Resolution, majority of Muslims did not know >League’s aims. Thus voted for congress because senior and experienced party and same aim

CONGRESS RULE 1937 – 1939

Reasons for why it was so hated by the Indians and Muslims:

Hindu made official language, Muslims could not read, write this, so unemployment

Band-e-Matram asked to expel Muslims and was nationalistic Indian song, became like national song

Wardha Scheme was introduced, picture of Gandhi, cotton weaving.

Congress banned Cow slaughter, Muslims oppressed if they slaughtered cows. >Disturbances to Muslim Life: Azaan banned, Pigs pushed into mosques.

Anti Muslim riots, Muslim property, houses burned. Complaints ignored

Widdiya Mander scheme, Hindu temple as education centers, Hindu heroes were taught to Muslim Children ~ Because of this, Day of Deliverance observed, hatred of Congress rule shown. Thus gap between the two communities increased, showed they did not get together. Even Nehru commented on how little they seemed to get along.

 

Q: Was the celebration of the day of deliverance justified? Explain your answer.

L3: Day of deliverance.

L4: Congress tyrannies.

LAHORE RESOLUTION – 1940

Reasons for it being passed:

Congress rule was tyrannical for Muslims

Iqbal and Chaudhry Rehmat Ali gave idea of separate Homeland in early 1930s, Jinnah agreed to it only after Congress Rule.

Muslims knew that Independence had to be achieved before the British left India

CRIPPS MISSION – 1942

Why it was unsuccessful:

Cripps mission suggested that Dominion status be given to India, Congress wanted immediate power transfer

It suggested that Individual Provinces be allowed to opt out, but this would lead to Pakistan creation/Muslim Majority, so Congress opposed it.

Jinnah still rejected it since he wanted a clear cut reference to Pakistan’s creation.

It’s Importance to Pakistan’s creation:

Suggested that Individual provinces could opt out, thus SOME reference to Pakistan Movement was present

Jinnah rejected it since he desired clear cut reference to Pakistan, shows determination of Jinnah and clear cut goals

Congress demand of immediate independence alarmed League, since no Pakistan if British were not there to conduct partition before leaving.

QUIT INDIA MOVEMENT – 1942

Why started:

Congress was aware that British were going to leave India, exploited British post WW2 weakness.

Cripps Mission stated that individual provinces could opt out, alarmed them since this meant >British were considering Partition

Japan was threatening British, this meant possible Indian invasion. If British left, threat of invasion would finish.

Why Unsuccessful:

Main Leaders, Gandhi and Nehru were arrested. No guidance

British used Aerial Bombing and Machine Guns, against QIM supporters, 1000’s thus died. >Jinnah didn’t approve, since he knew no Pakistan if Independence without British being there to Partition

Importance:

Congress started QIM to get general Independence and stop creation of Pakistan, alarming

Jinnah who quickened pace for Pakistan creation

Due to QIM leaders being arrested, League gained a huge advantage which it exploited to gain strength

Jinnah declared the QIM as blackmail, declaring it an attempt to take advantage of weak British condition. Jinnah supported British (important for Pakistan)

GANDHI JINNAH TALKS – 1944

Why it was unsuccessful

Gandhi wanted subjects like Defence and Foreign Affairs to be under control of central government. Jinnah wanted this in provinces

Gandhi wanted Congress and League to work for general Independence first

Gandhi rejected the two nation theory, believed that all Indians were one nation, but this was basis for Pakistan Movement

Gandhi said that of 6 declared provinces, only 3 could be made part of Pakistan since they were >Muslim majority, Punjab, Bengal and Assam should be communally divided as they were partially Muslim. Jinnah said no, since this would mean financially weak Pakistan

Why successful:

(last point of unsuccessful) pleased Jinnah since this should that Indians had realized that

Partition might happen

Gandhi said that Jinnah and Congress should work for general Independence first

Jinnah handled these intelligently, didn’t compromise Muslim Rights. His standing thus improved

SIMLA CONFERENCE – 1945

Unsuccessful:

Congress wanted to nominate at least one Muslim member in executive council, rejected by >Jinnah since League wanted to be sole representation of Muslims in India.

Jinnah dissatisfied with parity of seats between Muslims and Hindus since Sikh and low Caste members would side with Hindus, leading to permanent Muslim minority.

Importance:

Jinnah handled it intelligently, didn’t compromise Muslim rights. Thus image improved among

Muslims and support of Pakistan movement increased (can be seen in 1945-46 elections)

Deadlock between League and Congress over nomination of seats led to Wavell realizing

Partition would be necessary

Wavell suggested that an executive council be formed in which Indians would be members with viceroy as defense minister. This transfer of power showed that British were planning to leave India.

 

Q: During WW2 negotiations aimed at independence….

Cripps mission

Gandhi Jinnah Talks

Simla Conference

 

Q: How successful were events during WW2 in achieving independence? Explain your answer.

Successes and Failures of:

Day of Deliverance

Lahore Resolution

Cripps Mission

QIM

Gandhi Jinnah Talks

Simla conference

 

Q: Which of the following was the most important in the formation of Pakistan? i) Simla Conference ii) Gandhi Jinnah talks iii) QIM

Explain your answer with reference to all three of the above?

Include importance of all these,

 

Q: Was Simla Conference the most important between 1940 and 1945 that helped in the formation of Pakistan? Explain your answer. L3: Simla Conference

L4: Other events; Lahore Resolution, Cripps Mission, QIM, Gandhi Jinnah Talks

Q: Gandhi – Jinnah talks were more important for formation of Pakistan than QIM? Give reasons for your answer. L3: G-J talks

L4: QIM successes

 

Q: How successful was the Simla Conference of 1945? 10/marks

2 successes, 3 failures.

ELECTIONS OF 1945 – 1946

Why Muslim League was so successful:

Congress Rule was tyrannical and League promised rights, so Muslims voted for the League. >League learnt from 1937 elections and thus improved planning, organization and campaigned efficiently. Thus more Muslims knew of the league.

Muslim League had passed the Lahore Resolution and started working for separate homeland,

Muslims voted as they wanted to avoid Hindu domination

League lost 1937 elections due to image problem, which they worked on by working hard in the 1940’s for Muslim rights.

Importance of these Elections:

Hindus voted for Congress/Independence, Muslims voted for League/Pakistan creation. Thus British realized that they were separate communities. Thus paved way for Pakistan.

After winning the 1946 elections, League became a stronger party with complete Muslim support, thus demands for separate homelands could not be ignored.

CABINET MISSION PLAN – 1946

Why was the Cabinet Mission Plan Unsuccessful?

It stated that India would be divided into 3 parts, (Two Muslim majority, one large Indian Majority) with full provincial autonomy and right to form own constitution. Jinnah immediately accepted as Muslim rights protected, but Nehru stated in a press conference this they were not bound to keep it once the British left, Jinnah thus immediately rejected the plan.

Was not able to close the gap between Muslims & Hindus (i.e. Partition vs United)

Suggested an All India Commission to decide outcome (Partition, or United India). Rejected by both Congress and League since both feared that the outcome would go against their demands.

Importance of Cabinet Mission Plan

Cabinet Mission negotiated with parties, found that they had different aims, thus unsuccessful since bridge between two undividable and partition would be necessary. (First point of Unsuccessfulness)

 

Q: How successful was the cabinet Mission plan of 1946? Explain your answer

Importance

Failures.

DIRECT ACTION DAY – 1946

Importance to Pakistan formation:

In 1946 Jinnah feared the British might leave India without partition thus called for a large peaceful demonstration of Muslim feelings. Many Muslims celebrated, and made it clear that Pakistan formation demand was democratic and could not be ignored.

Hindu – Muslim clashes in Calcutta during this day, resulted in 4000 people losing their lives, British realized that these two communities could not live together peacefully.

3RD JUNE PLAN

A new Viceroy Lord Mountbatten was sent to India in 1947 to negotiate with local political parties regarding the future of India. Jinnah was adamant with his demand of Pakistan and the Viceroy was forced to accept. In the 3rd June Plan, the viceroy announced that India would be divided into two states, i.e. India and Pakistan. Jinnah’s efforts therefore bore fruit and this plan made the creation of Pakistan official.

JINNAH

Why Jinnah changed his stance from Hindu Muslim unity to Two Nation Theory.

Congress Rule of 1937 was tyrannical for Muslims.

Anti Muslim Nehru report suggested that Hindu should be made the official Language. >The RTC’s made him pessimistic about Hindu Muslim Unity.

Jinnah’s importance to the Pakistan Movement:

14 Points

Rejection of Nehru Report

Jinnah declared the QIM black mail, felt that Congress tried to exploit poor conditions of British in WW2

Lahore Resolution

Gandhi suggested that Congress and Muslim League work together, and Partition after Independence, but Jinnah was too clever to agree to this.

Simla Conference

Jinnah worked hard to improve the image problem of the Muslims after 1937 elections, thus successful in the 1945 elections. >Direct Action day started.

There was a hint to opt out of the individual provinces of the Cripps Mission which was rejected by Jinnah since he wanted a clear reference to Pakistan.

Forced Viceroy Mountbatten to accept 3rd June Plan.