Pakistan Studies (2059) – Section 3 Comprehensive Notes

O Levels Pakistan Studies Syllabus is quite lengthy and it takes a lot of time to revise through every thing. Therefore, to overcome this problem GCE GUIDE has come up with a set of summarize notes to make the revision easier. It’s a last minute revision guide, and is very helpful.

So the following are the revision notes by Malik Asim Aziz.

Contents:


Liaquat Ali Khan

Objectives Resolution

  • First move towards constitutional development
  • Focused on principles of Islam and human rights
  • Designed to deflect criticism from religious leaders Successes
  • Objectives Resolution
  • Minority Pact 1950
  • Proper handling of coup (Rawalpindi conspiracy)
  • Managed to keep economy going and produce surplus budgets for new state Failures
  • PRODA
  • Failed to frame constitution
  • Failed to handle Hyderabad crisis
  • Unable to resolve Kashmir issue (ceasefire)

Malik Ghulam Muhammad 1951-55

Successes

  • Economic development
  1. 1951 – Planning Commission 5 years plan
  2. 1953 – Planning Board further 5 year plan
  • Repealed PRODA
  • Foreign aid – wheat, CENTO Failure
  • Political instability – dissolved assembly
  • Campaigns against Ahmedis – Forced to expel Zafarullah Khan (Foreign Minister)
  • Improper handling of drought – led to riots
  • Unable to make constitution

Major General Iskander Mirza 1955-58

Successes

  • 1956 Constitution
  • Modernization
  1. Rural development program
  2. Industrialization
  3. Karachi airport established (1955)
  4. Telephone system expanded
  5. Provision in health, education services
  • Establishment of Defence Pacts
    1. SEATO
    2. MDAA
  • One Unit Scheme

Failures

  • Rise of Nationalism in East Pakistan – they realized that they needed to take solid steps to protect their rights
  • Undemocratic Rule (Martial Law)
  • Political instability – changed prime ministers too much Ayub Khan

1958-69

Successes

  • 1962 Constitution
  • Positive reforms – land reforms, wealth increase
  • Defended in 1965 war Failure
  • 1965 war – unable to solve Kashmir issue
  • Negative reforms
  • Presidential form of government
  • Curtailing civil liberties

Yahya Khan 1969-71

Successes

  • Abolished One Unit Scheme
  • Abolished Basic Democratic System/elections
  • LFO – Legal Framework Order – one man, one vote
  • Seats distributed according to Pakistan
  • Fair elections Failures
  • 1971 war with India
  • Civil war – separation of East Pakistan (immediate causes) Unable to implement results of the elections

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto 1972-77

Successes

  • 1973 Constitution
  • Reforms (land, health, education, administrative)
  • Controlled army
  • Simla Agreement 1972 Failures
  • FSF in 1975
    • 1973 – dissolved Balochistan Assembly
    • 1974 – press freedom and political opponents/parties banned
    • Negative reforms (industrial and administration

Zia-ul-Haq 1979-88

Successes

  • Reforms – economic, industrial
  • Economic Development (Afghan Miracle)
  • Banned FSF
  • Improved relations with Balochistan
  • Islamisation
  • Foreign Policy Failures
  • Negative effects of Afghan Miracle
  • Hanging of Bhutto – made him unpopular
  • Amendments of judiciary reforms – PCO (1980), CAA (1979)
  • 8th Amendment – took over complete power
  • Political instability – removal of Junejo and dissolved assembly

PAKISTAN FOREIGN RELATIONS USA

FAILURES

  • Pakistan was not happy on the US stance of supporting united India during the Second World War.
  • Pakistan was not initially recognized by the USA.
  • Pakistan was not happy with USA when it gave arms to India during the Indo China War of 1962.
  • Pakistan had thought that these arms were to be used against Pakistan. USA did not support Pakistan openly during the 1965 war.
  • Instead it stopped the supply of Arm to Pakistan.
  • Pakistan had to face an arms embargo during 1967, meaning that the supply of US arms was suspended.
  • Pakistan was upset when USA openly refused to give any support to Pakistan in the
  • Bangladesh episode.
  • USA showed serious concerns over the commencement of the nuclear Program of Pakistan. After the end of the Afghan Miracle Pakistan was again seen as an un trusted ally and the aid to Pakistan was suspended even before the complete withdrawal of the Russian Forces. It was around the end of 70’s when Zia took over and Pakistan’s international credibility fell again.
  • US authorities were again unhappy with Pakistan on the crime of over throwing a democratic government.
  • In March 1986, the two countries agreed on a second multi-year (FY 1988–93) $4-billion economic development and security assistance program. On October 1, 1990, however, the United States suspended all military assistance and new economic aid to Pakistan under the Pressler Amendment, which required that the President certify annually that Pakistan “does not possess a nuclear explosive device.”
  • The Pakistan US relations were further deteriorated when Nawaz Sharif came to power in 1990 and extended his anti west policies, as he was himself the legacy of Zia’s rule.
  • The US aid to Pakistan was literally suspended during the first regime of Nawaz and serious questions were raised about the nuclear capability of Pakistan.
  • The Pak US relations were again dented when Benazir Government accepted the Taliban regime of Afghanistan in 1995 as the Taliban were purely anti US.
  • The relations hit low ebb in 1998 when Pakistan, ignored all the international pressure in general and US in particular and tested her nuclear devices in reply to the Indian tests in May earlier.
  • Pakistan’s insistence of not signing the CTBT until India does was probably the last nail in the good relations of the US with Pakistan.
  • Further deteriorations were seen when General Pervez over threw Nawaz Shairf’s government in 1999 October and Washington showed clear disliking about this act of the army yet again in Pakistan.

SUCCESSES

  • Pakistani PM M Liaquat Ali Khan received an invitation to visit USA.
  • Pakistan accepted it as it needed a powerfully ally in the world to get military, economic and technological assistanc
  • Pakistan signed the Anti communist pacts of SEATO AND CENTO in 1955 after it had signed the famous BAGHDAD P
  • Pakistan remained a favored ally of the British through out the 60’s .
  • Eisen Hower visited Pakistan in 1959, surprising during the reign of an army dictator, Ayub Khan , despite the US claims of condemning the military regi
  • Pakistan went out of the way to support the US on the U-2 incident in 1960 and subsequently became the victim of the fury of USSR in the process.
  • USSR attacked Afghanistan on December 2 1979 and Pakistan subsequently decided to become the front line state in war against communism.
  • Pakistan became the darling of the international community as it was fighting against the devastating USSR.
  • PK became the second larges recipient of the US aid in 80’s.
  • A lot of technical assistance was given to Pakista
  • Pakistan was pampered enough reject an aid of US$ 300 million, considering it to less for the effort they were putting in.
  • The US officials often visited the affected areas of Pakistan, particularly Peshawar to boost the Afghan and Pakistan sold
  • The relations started improving with the arrival of Benazir Bhutto in the office of the Prime Minister as she promoted pro US
  • She continued to seek the help of US on the Kashmir issue to mediate and resolve the matter
  • The US president Bill Clinton visited Pakistan in 1998 to show solidarity to Pakistan on various issue including the Kashmir

USSR

FAILURES

  • The Pakistani PM went to US rather than USSR which straight away created a rift between both the countries.
  • Pakistan was not happy when USSR supported India on the Kashmir issue.
  • The USSR was also supporting the Pakhtoonistan cause of the Afghanistan which was yet an other disliked issue to Pakistan
  • The USSR offered Pakistan to take the steel Mills but was refused.
  • The USSR was furious on the Pakistani decision of signing SEATO and CENTO by 1955.
  • The USSR was extremely unhappy when the shot down plan U-2 flew from the US air base in Peshawar. USSR clearly threatened Pakistan to destroy the base if Pakistan was found guilty of helping the US in any such regards.
  • In 1971 the USSR was supporting India and even threat China to attack if it ever tried to help Pakistan in the war.
  • The relations hit the lowest ebb when Pakistan decided to become the front line state in the war against communism.
  • The USSR was furious and went on to attack the border areas of Pakistan through out the war between 1979-1988.
  • When Zia tried to attend the funeral ceremony of the Russian president Andropov in 1984 but he was not entertained.
  • When the Geneva Accord was signed in 1988, the relationship between the two countries became worst and the by the time USSR was disintegrated and the Russian blamed Pakistan for the tragedy.

SUCCESSES

Pakistani PM Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan received an invitation to visit USSR before any other country.

  • The USSR accepted Pakistan and voted in favour to become a member of the
  • In 1963 Pakistan and USSR drew closer because of an away drift between Pakistan and USA due to Indo-China war
  • Pakistan was given 11 million pound aid by the USSR in 196
  • USSR remained neutral during the India Pakistan war in 1965 which was sigh of relieve for Pakistan.
  • USSR continued to force Pakistan to close down the Peshawar Air base what Pakistan agreed in 1968.
  • ZAB improved the relations as he had an anti west policy which kept him away from the
  • Pakistan was given the Steel Mills in 1972 by the USSR which further improved the relations
  • The relationship remained warm through out the ZAB

AFGHANISTAN

FAILURES

  • Afghanistan became the only country to vote against Pakistan’s inclusion in the UNO 1947. Afghanistan claimed that some areas of the present day Pakistan had actually been a part of the Greater Afghanistan (Pakhtoonistan)
  • They claimed this because they believed that these were the areas which were captured by
  • the Afghan invaders like Mahmood Ghaznavi and Mohammad Ghauri.
  • Afghanistan clearly backed India on the Kashmir issue and the Canal water dispute.
  • Jinnah invited a meeting of the Afghan officials in Karachi in 1947 and offered a trade transit route. Against this offer Jinnah expected the Afghanistan to give up their claims of Pakhtoonistan.
  • The Afghan government refused to accept this offer.
  • The relations further deteriorated when the Afghan mob burnt the Pakistan embassy in Kabul. The Afghan government did not take any actions against the suspects and subsequently the diplomatic ties were broken.
  • The Afghan government remained neutral during the Indo-Pak war of 1965 despite the fact that the people remained on Pakistan’s favour.
  • The Afghan government supported the Indians officially during the 1971 war.
  • The pro communist regime of Dr Najeeb continued to blame Pakistan for the insurgency and the poor law and order situations with in Afghanistan.
  • The Indian influence in Afghanistan was yet an other reason for the poor relations between the two bordering countries.
  • The first major step towards better relation ship between the two countries was taken in 1956 when Iskandar Mirza went to visit Afghanistan.
  • ZAB Islamic socialism also targeted Afghanistan and he visited Afghanistan. Sardar Daud, the Afghan PM also visited Pakistan on numerous occasions.
  • The friendship continued even after the execution of ZAB because the ZIA believed that a
  • peaceful and strong Afghanistan ensured a secured Pakistan.
  • Afghanistan was attacked by the USSR in 1979 and Pakistan decided to help the Afghan brothers.
  • The Pakistan government invited 3.5 million Afghanis and hosted them.
  • Pakistan’s support to the Afghanistan Mujahideen was immense.
  • Pakistan was even a victim of the Russian fury and was attacked on very frequent basis. Pakistan catered all sorts of the needs of the Afghanis through out this era.
  • The civil war between 1988-1995 was a tough period for Afghanistan and Pakistan
  • supported them in all aspects.
  • The government of Pakistan accepted the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and the first embassy was opened in Islamabad.
  • The foreign ministers of both the countries paid bi lateral visits and trade was improved.
  • The Taliban government continued to support Pakistan on the Kashmir issue for the first time in the history.

INDIA 1947-1971

FAILURES

  • The refugee problem soon after the independence
  • The Canal water dispute remained a major cause of poor relations as long as the IWT was signed.
  • The division of financial and military assets.
  • The Kashmir issue was one of the strongest reasons for the rift between the two countries. The hostility between the two countries continued through out the 1950’s.
  • The Indo China war and the support rendered by Pakistan to China further drifted both the countries away from each other.
  • The Runn of Kutch issue in the borders areas in the south eastern region created a war like situation between the two nations.
  • Pakistan tried to uprise the Kashmiris against the Indian authorities to liberate them from India, however the attempt was a failure due to the lack of support from the Kashmiris. Pakistan and India went to a large scale war in 1965 which was a major failure.
  • The Agartala Conspiracy was blamed on India as it was an attempt to create a situation in East Pakistan.
  • The RAW was established in 1967 and Pakistan blamed it for insurgency in East Pakistan. The support for the East Pakistan and later the creation of Mukti Bahini further deteriorated the relations between the two countries.
  • India was the first country to accept the state of Bagladesh and Pakistan threatened to break the diplomatic ties with India.

SUCCESSES

  • Pakistan’s inclusion in the UNO was supported by India.
  • Liaquat Nehru Pact signed in 1951 regarding the safe guard of the minorities on both sides of the border.
  • Both India and Pakistan joined the CENTO and SEATO in 1955.
  • The Indus Water treaty was signed in 1960 to resolve the canal water dispute.
  • The Tashkent agreement was signed between Pakistan and India in order to cease fire.

INDIA 1972-1999

India tested her nuclear device in 1974 in the border town of Pokhran and sent a very clear message of attempting to dominate the region on the basis of the nuclear edge.

Pakistan responded sharply and announced her nuclear program. The Pakistan PM Mr. ZAB said that Pakistan will get the nuclear powers even if it has to eat grass. This showed the Pakistan government’s commitment towards the goals of attaining Nuclear power.

In 1983, the Pakistani and Indian governments accused each other of aiding separatists in their respective countries, i.e., Sikhs in India’s Punjab state and Sindhis in Pakistan’s Sindh province.

The relations of both the countries deteriorated sharply when India blamed Pakistan to help the Sikh Separatist Movement in the Indian Punjab. Pakistan however did not show any signs of helping the Khalistan Movement during the 1980.

Following the incidents in Amritsar (the Operation Blue Star), one of the Sikh body guards of the Indian Prime Minister Mrs. Indra Gandhi gunned her down in October 1984. The son of Mrs. Indra, Mr, Rajiv Gandhi blamed Pakistan for the assassination of her mother.

The relations were strained during 1987, when the border skirmishes between the two countries continued and almost led to a large scale war when India started her large scale military exercise in the Rajhistan desert.

The Pakistan government continued to claim Kashmir and the Siachin glacier that kept the situation heated between the two countries.

The destruction of the Babri Masjid in Ajodhiya, India in December 1990 further dented the relations between the two governments.

The relations between India and Pakistan remained cold on the issue of the Signing the Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty.

Bilateral tensions increased in early 1990, when Kashmiri separatists from Pakistan occupied Kashmir backed by the Pakistan’s ISI perpetrated violence in Indian Kashmir. However Pakistan secretly occupied certain border areas forces in Kashmir. By early summer, serious fighting flared up in the Kargil sector. The fighting lasted about a month till the Pakistani forces were driven out of the areas that had been secretly occupied by them.

SUCCESSES

  • Tensions diminished after Rajiv Gandhi became Prime Minister in November 1984 and after a group of Sikh hijackers were brought to trial by Pakistan in March 198
  • Pakistan and India became the members of the SAARC in 198 This organization was not only to improve the economic conditions of the member countries but also to avoid the wars between them.
  • The sporting relations between the two countries were resumed and the Cricket and the hockey teams visited across the border
  • Both the countries exchanged the group of actors and laid emphasis on joint productions for the healthy cinema.
  • The SAF games were held in 1988 in Pakistan and India participated with full enthusiasm in the
  • In December 1985, President Zia and Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi pledged not to attack each other’s nuclear faciliti A formal “no attack” agreement was signed in January 1991.
  • In 1986, the Indian and Pakistani governments began high-level talks to resolve the Siachen Glacier border dispute and to improve trade
  • Subsequent high-level bilateral meetings relieved the tensions between Pakistan and India, but relations worsened again after terrorist bombings in Bombay, in March 1993. Talks between the Foreign Secretaries of both countries in January 1994 resulted in deadlock.
  • Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif moved to resume an official dialogue with India. A number of meetings at the foreign secretary and Prime Ministerial level took place, with positive atmospherics but little concrete progress. The relationship improved markedly when Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee traveled to Lahore for a summit with Sharif in February 1999.

CHINA

Pakistan did not accept the communist regime of China till 1951.

The relations remained strained when Pakistan became a part of the anti communist pacts SEATO and CENTO in 1955.

The Chinese government did not help Pakistan on the East Pakistan issue and urged the Pakistan government to resolve the issue internally.

The support of China on the matter was also missing as the pressure from USSR was far bigger than the friendship with Pakistan.

The Chinese government was not also much pleased when Pakistan backed out from the Kargil Hill on the US pressures rather than banking on the Chinese support and defeating India.

The first break came when India and China went on war on the borders disputes and Pakistan and China came closer.

  • Both the countries had found a common foe and therefore the coexistence became more
  • Pakistan accepted a $60 million interest free loan from the Chinese gover,
  • PIA became the first air line to start regular service to Beijin
  • Pakistan also negotiated the talk between the Chinese and the US government in the early 60’s.
  • The positive stance of Pakistan on the communist regime issue of China helped Pakistan earn a strong strategic ally and a great support on the Kashmir issue.
  • Pakistan became a closer friend of China when it helped Pakistan in the war against India in 1965.
  • Pakistan became an important purchaser of the Chinese arms after the 1965 w
  • ZAB paid visit to China and convinced the Chinese government to convert the loans to aid that had been given to Pakistan in the past few
  • Pakistan and China came closer as they announced the expansion of the famous silk rout. The Chinese expertise and the collaboration with Pakistan finally resulted in the Karakoram Highway.
  • The relations hit the highest points when both the countries signed the treaty for nuclear cooperation in 1986.
  • China continued to extend her support for the Pakistan government over the Afghanistan issue.
  • In the 1990s, China designed and supplied the heavy water Khusab reactor, which plays a key role in Pakistan’s production of plutonium. A subsidiary of the China National Nuclear Corporation also contributed in Pakistan’s efforts to expand its uranium enrichment capabilities by providing 5,000 custom made ring magnets, which are a key component of the bearings that facilitate the high-speed rotation of centrifuges.
  • China also provided technical and material support in the completion of the Chasma Nuclear Power Reactor and plutonium reprocessing facility, which was built in the mid 1990s.
  • China has also launched Pakistan’s first satellite to orbit in 1990 because Pakistan had no Spacepor However, Pakistan does have a space program. Pakistan’s Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO) is Pakistan’s national space agency and was established in 1961.
  • A 300-megawatt nuclear power plant, built with Chinese help in Punjab province, is c China is helping to build a second 300-megawatt nuclear plant due to be finished by 2010.