Answers of some selected Questions – Pakistan Studies (2059)

Questions:

(Select a question from the following list to view its answer. The questions themselves are the links.)

SECTION 1:

Q: Do you agree that Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s most important contribution to Muslim community was his support for education? Give reasons for your answer? [14]

Q: How successful has been the promotion of local languages in Pakistan been since 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14]

Q: Why did Pakistan choose Urdu as its national language in 1947? [7]

Q: Why have regional languages been promoted by the Pakistan government since 1947? [7]

SECTION 3:

Q: How successful have the successive governments been in the provision of health and education in Pakistan since 1947 to 1999? [14]

Q: Why did Pakistan face so many problems with the provision of education between 1947 and 1999? [7]

Q: How successful the governments have been in the Islamisation of Pakistan between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14]

Q: How successful was Pakistan’s relationship with the USSR between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. [14]

Q: How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with India between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer.

Q: What was the Kargil Conflict? [4]

Q: Why did Pakistan lose 1965 and 1971 wars? [7]

Q: How successful were Pak-USA relations since 1947 to 1999? Explain your answer.

Q: How successful had Pakistan been as a member of world organisations between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. [14]

Q: Why did Pakistan leave SEATO in 1972? [7]

Q: Why has Pakistan supported the Palestinian cause? [7]

Q: Why did Pakistan join United Nations? [7]

MORE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS WILL BE COMING SOON! SO STAY TUNED! :)

Answers:


Q: Do you agree that Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s most important contribution to Muslim community was his support for education? Give reasons for your answer? [14]

Ans: Sir Syed Ahmad Khan took steps to change Muslims attitude towards receiving British education. Sir Syed stressed on that the backwardness of the Muslims was because of lack of modern education. He opened schools at several places and started the scientific society at Ghazipore in 1863. Its main purpose was to make scientific writings available to a wider market by translating them from English, Persian or Arabic to Urdu. He also started publishing a magazine called the Aligarh institute Gazette in 1866. This was to introduce modern sciences among the Muslim public. Sir Syed went to England in 1869. He stayed there for 17 months and observed the system of the British universities. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan opened the school at Aligarh which became M.A.O (Mohammaden-Anglo Oriental) school in 1875 where English, Modern sciences and as well as Islamic teachings were taught. It was later raised to the status of university in 1920. Following the lead for Sir Syed Ahmad many Muslim high schools and Islamia colleges were opened in many big cities of India for Muslim students. Sir Syed established ‘Mohammaden Educational Conference’ which was an organization to discuss the problems of the Muslims education in India. This greatly helped the Muslims who started getting good jobs, improved their economic condition and improve their status in the society. Although encouraging the growth of western education was his important contribution but he made other contributions too.

Sir Syed believed that the position of the Muslims in the Sub-Continent could only be improved if the relations with the British were improved. Sir Syed made a two pronged effort to bring the British and Muslims closer. On one side he advised the Muslims not to think of armed struggle because the British were too strong. He was aware that the British knew very little about Islam. Indeed, on a visit to England he was so offended by an English Book on the life of Holy Prophet (PBUH) that he immediately wrote his own work correcting many errors. It was also true, however, that Muslims in India knew very little about Christianity. He tried to overcome this by writing Tabyin-ul-Kalam, in which he pointed out the similarities between Islam and Christianity and stated not to hate Christianity because to sit and eat with Christians was not forbidden in Islam.

On the other side, Sir Syed explained to the British that the Muslims were not responsible for the war of Independence 1857. In the book he wrote for this purpose (called the causes of Indian revolt), Sir Syed explained that the wrong British policies were the cause of uprising. He further explained that the British did not understand the needs and desires of Indian people while making laws and policies because there were no Indian members in Viceroy’s legislative council. He also explained that the British Indian army was mismanaged and solders rose up against their officers. In another book Sir Syed described at length the loyalty of the Muslims to the British. Sir Syed also founded the “British Indian association” to bring the British and Muslims closer. He also tried to clear up the misunderstanding among the British who resented being called “Nadarath” by Muslims. The Britain thought it was an insult, but Sir Syed pointed out that the word came from “Nasir” an Arabic word, meaning Helper. So the term was the reflection of the positive image Muslims had of the British, not an insult.

Sir Syed was successful in his effort and the misunderstanding was greatly removed. Muslims started coming towards English and modern education.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan guided the Muslims in political sphere as well. He advised the Muslims to keep away from congress. He opposed Western type of democracy because it meant that the Muslims will always be in minority and will be at the mercy of Hindus. He believed that Muslims would never win any election because of the Hindu Majority. He, therefore, advocated the separate seats and separate electorates which was the forerunner of the future demand for a separate homeland. Sir Syed also strongly opposed the replacement of Urdu by Hindu in 1867 and gave his Two Nation Theory. He always kept the interests of Muslim supreme in his mind.

Although, Sir Syed’s contribution towards improving relations between the Muslims and British and increasing political awareness was important but his contribution towards western education was very important contribution for the Islamic society. Because it helped Muslims in getting jobs and elevated their kudos and their status in the society.

Q: Why have regional languages been promoted by the Pakistan government since 1947? [7]

Ans: One of the reasons was that it was felt by the Pakistan government that in order to preserve the work done by the famous writers and poets in different languages, the languages should be promoted. The literature they produced must be kept alive for the coming generations. Works like of Munir Niazi, Atta Shad, Ashfaq Ahmad and others in areas of regional languages should be protected. So because of this thinking, govt. of Pakistan had made every possible attempt to promote the regional languages.

Secondly, some languages played an important role in the history of Pakistan. For example, Pushto literature had played a very important part in creating opposition to British rule and in the movement for independence. There to elevate the standard of such languages, govt. of Pakistan has tried to promote the regional languages since 1947.

Thirdly, at the time of partition, there were some languages that were at the brink of decline. Like Balochi, which was at its decline at the time of partition. So govt. felt that it should be kept alive and not lost forever. Hence the language was promoted.

Q: Why did Pakistan choose Urdu as its national language in 1947? [7]

Ans: One of the reasons why Urdu became the national language in Pakistan is its long history. It was widely used in Mughal period and dates back as far as the sultans of Delhi. In its early stages it was used by the Muslim armies and became widely spoken and understood in many parts of the sub-continent. So it was natural that such a well-known and established language would be chosen.

Another reason for Urdu being chosen was its high status. Some of the finest early poets such as Amir Khusrou wrote in Urdu and Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s school at Aligarh became a centre for Urdu study. Many religious books, including the Quran, were translated into Urdu. So it was considered an important language with a rich literary tradition.

Perhaps the major reason for Urdu being chosen was the fact that it was so closely associated with the Pakistan Movement. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan supported it and the Muslim league was formed not only to defend Muslim interests, but also to protect Urdu. The Quaid-e-Azam was particularly keen to promote Urdu as he saw it was it as a unifying force. Since Pakistan was a new country, it was very appropriate to pick a language which had played a part in unifying Muslims.

Q: How successful has been the promotion of local languages in Pakistan been since 1947? Give reasons for your answer. [14]

Ans: Since 1947, the Pakistan government has took strong measures for the development and promotion of its regional languages, Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto and Balochi, though some others like Brohi, Persian, Kashmiri and Siraiki are also spoken.

Punjabi, which is widely understood in Punjab, Azad Kashmir and few areas of N.W.F.P, has been promoted by the Govt. through media. Punjabi films, dramas and theatres have been become very popular. Newspaper, journals and magazines have also been very significant in promoting Punjabi culture & literature. New poets and writers like Munir Niazi, Ahmad Rahi, S.Kunjahi, Ashfaq Ahmad, Bano Qudsia and others have produce master pieces of poetry and writings in Punjabi. The Holy Quran has also been translated into Punjabi by M.Ali Faiq.

Punjabi is taught up to MA level in Punjab University and Punjab Academy has translated and produced many books in Punjabi. This way round its promotion is quite significant.

Pashto, language spoken in N.W.F.P, has also been given due important in promotion and development. Peshawar University was established after 3 year of independence where Pashto is taught up to MA level. Pashto Academy was set up in 1954 which has prepared a well-renowned dictionary under Maulana A.Qadir. Pashto dramas and films have also gained importance. Pashto papers, journals and books have also helped Pashto language to promote. New writers & poets have also added to this contribution by producing classic poetry and stories Pashto typewriter has also been prepared. Hence Pashto has greatly been promoted over the year.

Sindhi, spoken in Sindh, have also been nourished and nurtured through promotion and development since 1947. Sindhi literary board was set up in 1948 which had produced many books with coordination of poets like F.N Bux and G. Allone. Sindhi library in Karachi has helped Sindhi literature spread. Many folk writings have also been produced. Bazm-e-Talib-ul-Muola have been set up which translates books into Sindhi. Sindhiology Dept. in Jamshoro University and development & promotion of Sindhi literature and culture through modern means. Example: TV, radio, newspapers e.t.c. After 1947 large numbers of Urdu speaking refugees were settled in Sindh. Sindhi- Speaking people feared their language and culture were being destroyed. After riots in 1972, in support of preserving their language and culture, the govt. guaranteed the special importance of the Sindhi language.

Balochi language which was at its decline before partition was given special attention for its promotion. Radio Pak Karachi now also broadcast in Balochi. Quetta TV centre have been producing marvellous dramas to help, develop and translate many books to Balochi and new poets like Atta Shad and writers have greatly contributed towards its promotion. Balochi literary Association was set up and there are now weekly and monthly magazines published in the language.

Thus, Pakistan has been very successful in promotion of its local languages. These languages have developed a lot due to Government policies designed for this purpose. On the other hand, poets & writers have also aided in this promotion and development.


Q: Why did Pakistan join United Nations? [7]

Ans: United Nations was founded after World War II. Pakistan joined the UNO in September 1947. There were several reasons for this:

Firstly, as a new-born independent country, Pakistan was anxious to be recognised as an independent country in the world. Moreover, since India was already a member of UNO even before 1947, Pakistan was also keen to get its membership. As a sovereign state, it was important for Pakistan to join UNO to make its identity accepted by the world.

Secondly, just after the partition Pakistan was faced with the problem of the accession of the states of Junagarh, Hyderabad and Kashmir. It was vital for Pakistan to seek the membership in order to present her case before the Security Council effectively. Furthermore, on 1st April 1948, India had shut off the water supplies to Pakistan (Canal Water Dispute). So to find a solutions to such problems, Pakistan joined UNO. UNO supported Pakistan by helping it draw a treaty with India (Indus Water Treaty, 1960) with the help of World Bank.

Thirdly, Pakistan was keen to play its role in supporting the independence struggle of several Asian and African countries. So to play its role as a peaceful nation against colonization, racial discrimination, territorial and regional aggression, Pakistan joined the UNO in 1947.

Q: Why has Pakistan supported the Palestinian cause? [7]

Ans: Pakistan has been supporting Palestinian cause for three important reasons.

Firstly, even before the partition, Muslims of the subcontinent had supported the cause of Palestinians and had rendered political, moral and material support to them. The spirit of Islamic brotherhood continued even after the partition. The torching of Al-Aqsa Mosque in 1969 by Jews added fuel to the fire.

Secondly, one of the cornerstones of Pakistan’s foreign policy was the support of suppressed nations. Pakistan has always been against oppression, colonialism, discrimination and had supported the right of self-determination of every nation. Pakistan has always condemned Israel and supported the Palestinians on all international forums.

Thirdly, Pakistan has not recognised Israel. Ever since the emergence of Israel state in 1948, Pakistan has opposed the unjust and unfair policy of western powers who arranged and supported the settlement of Jews from all parts of the world or unlawfully occupied Arab lands.

Pakistan has raised on the forum of OIC for the rights of Palestinian people and withdrawal of Israeli forces from the occupied territories.

Q: Why did Pakistan leave SEATO in 1972? [7]

Ans: Pakistan had joined SEATO in 1954. But due to certain reasons Pakistan was forced to withdraw itself from SEATO.

Pakistan signed the treaty, but the United States warned that the Pact applied only to communist aggression so Pakistan could not hope to use treaty if attacked by India. The decision of the Foreign Minister, Zafarullah Khan, to sign the treaty was contested by the Pakistan government, and it was not until January 1955 that government of Pakistan agreed to ratify the treaty. Therefore weaknesses were apparent.

Moreover, Pakistan had tried to secure further aid as a result of its membership of SEATO and pushed for a permanent military force to be established to protect all member states. Neither of these moves was successful, as the other members refused to agree.

Pakistan’s disenchantment with the treaty increased when SEATO did not support Pakistan in either of its wars with India (1965 and 1971 wars). It was the Bangladesh crisis in 1971 which finally led Bhutto to declare the withdrawal of Pakistan from SEATO in 1972.

Therefore, due to these reasons, Pakistan left SEATO in 1972.

Q: How successful had Pakistan been as a member of world organisations between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. [14]

Ans: Pakistan has been taking keen and active interest in international organisations. Pakistan joined UNO in September 1947. In the beginning Pakistan remained involved in arguments about rights of Kashmiris and the solution for the Kashmir problem in which Pakistan was not successful.

But later, Pakistan has been very active in the proceedings of the United Nations and the Pakistani delegations made effective contribution for the independence of many states, which were under colonial rule in 1950s particularly in case of Muslim states such as Palestine. Pakistan has contributed effectively and regularly to the United Nations peace-keeping missions in African and Asian countries. Pakistan was elected thrice as member of the Security Council. Pakistan was effective in getting resolutions passed in General Assembly asking for withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan and always supported the Palestinian and Arab cause. Chaudhry Zafarullah Khan of Pakistan worked as a judge of international Court of Justice for a number of years. Thus, on the whole Pakistan has been a successful member of UNO.

Pakistan was far more enthusiastic about CENTO because other member states were mostly Muslim. Pakistan regularly tried to persuade the other members to establish a unified command for CENTO. However, despite regular meetings, the group never developed a permanent structure or a system for raising troops for mutual defence. The USA supported CENTO, but never actually joined. Thus by 1979 the organisation had quietly dissolved. In September 1954, Pakistan joined SEATO, but the decision faced opposition from within the Pakistan government and so the treaty was not ratified until 1955. The treaty also applied to only against the communist aggression, thus Pakistan was to receive no help for its wars with India. Pakistan had also hoped for a permanent military force to protect all member countries against any attack – it was, however, not accepted. It did not support Pakistan during 1965 and 1971 wars. Finally Bhutto withdrew from the organisation in 1972 after the Bangladesh Crisis. Therefore, the membership of SEATO and CENTO has not been successful on part of Pakistan.

Since the foundation of OIC, Pakistan had been an active member of it and had been actively participating in the activities of OIC aimed at Islamic unity, solidarity and stability. Pakistan has also taken part in all summits and conferences held under the banner of OIC. Pakistan also contributed her due share in all respects for the achievement of its objectives. It had raised voice for the Palestinian Cause. Sharif-udin-Pirzada, the former minister of Pakistan, have been the Secretary-General of OIC. The summit showed that Pakistan had many friends all over the Muslim world. One result was that Pak was receiving aid from fellow Islamic countries, like Iran (giving loans totalling $730 million). Thus Pakistan also remained a prominent member of OIC.

On 21st July 1964, largely as a result of the work of Ayub Khan, Turkey, Iran and Pakistan set up the Regional Cooperation for Development (RCD). This encouraged the three countries to develop closer trade links and help each other with industrial projects, such as setting up mills, and factories.

In case of Canal Water Dispute, the UN played a significant role when the President of the World Bank made a recommendation that it should provide financial and technical support to resolve the disagreement. This proposal formed the basis of the Indus Water Treaty signed in September 1959. The World Bank also provided finance to help establish hydro-electricity and soil reclamation programmes which have been vital for the stimulation of Pakistan’s economy and industries.

Pakistan has been an active member of NAM organisation and took active part in its deliberations. Pakistan has been an effective member of Common wealth except during the 1972-1989. Pakistan has always stood for justice, equality, peace, security and rights of the people.

On the whole Pakistan has been quite successful as a member of world organisations.

Q: How successful were Pak-USA relations since 1947 to 1999? Explain your answer.

Ans: After partition in 1947, Pakistan decided to ally itself with USA. But at this time, USA was working towards an anti-communist alliance with India, so it was sometime before they embraced an alliance with Pakistan with any enthusiasm. During independence struggle, the America had often talked of need of unity between Muslims and Hindus, but Muslims wanted a separate homeland, so they were disturbed by this. It also took several years before USA sent an ambassador to Pakistan.

Liaqat Ali khan was frustrated by coolness of Americans towards an alliance with Pakistan. He accepted the offer to visit Soviet Union in 1949. He was successful (by this visit) in forcing Americans into closer alliance. An offer came immediately to visit USA and Liaqat Ali Khan made his visit in 1950. He made arrangements for a Pakistan Embassy to be built in USA. India was reluctant to sign an anti-communist alliance in return for military and economic aid. Agreement was signed and American aid began to flow into Pakistan. The relations became warm and good.

In 1954, Pakistan and USA signed Mutual Defence Assistance Agreement. In same year SEATO was set up. Pakistan also joined, but the decision faced opposition from within the govt. so the treaty was ratified until 1955. But Pakistan soon realised that its membership was of little importance as treaty only applied to help against communist aggression. So Pakistan was received no support in its wars against India. In 1972, Bhutto withdrew Pakistan from the organisation. In 1955, Baghdad pact was also signed which was renamed ‘The Central Asian Treaty Organisation’ [CENTO] after Iraq left in 1959 because of a revolution. However, despite regular meetings, the group never developed a permanent structure or a system for raising troops for mutual defence. USA supported it, but never actually joined. To sum up, these treaties explain why Pakistan was called the ‘most allied ally’ of USA in 1950s.

However, during 1960s and 1970s relations were often strained. In 1962, China went to a war with India. As China was communist so USA provided military aid to help India fight. Pakistan was angered over this because USA did not consult Pakistan before providing aid. In 1962, Ayub Khan visited China and in 1965 he visited Soviet Union. As both were communist, so these visits displeased USA. Pakistan was not provided any help or special aid during its wars with India (in 1965 and 1971) by USA. Although Ayub displeased USA by visiting communist countries, he is known as architect of good relations with USA. He allowed them to build air bases in Pakistan and remained loyal to USA even during the embarrassing ‘U2 Affair’. So relations were good. But when he was deposed and replaced by Bhutto, Americans became concerned as he was not as pro-American as his predecessors and relations deteriorated. Bhutto even accused Americans of organising opposition against him in 1977. When Zia came, relations reached rock bottom as Americans did not approve of military regimes. In 1979 US Embassy in Islamabad was burned. USA accused Zia of complicity in the attack. It also recalled many of its senior officials and all aid programmes were cancelled.

However, during same year, situation changed overnight when soviets attacked Afghanistan. USA began to provide military and economic aid to Pakistan to help it buy modern US weapons and also to support Afghan rebels. Relations became very good and warm. Pakistan enjoyed rapid economic development and became leading military nation in the region. But when peace agreements was signed in 1988, Pak lost its strategic importance to USA. Aid was reduced dramatically which became a big problem for new govt. of Benazir Bhutto. Americans were previously concerned about Pakistan’s nuclear programme. Bhutto had to work to maintain the relationship with the USA as American officials were not convinced that Pakistan had no nuclear weapons. In 1985 the Pressler Amendment had said that the USA could only give aid to a country after American President had declared that country had no nuclear weapons and was not developing them. After Afghan crisis was over, President Bush refused to declare that this was the case with Pakistan and he blocked aid to country. He also stopped sale of 28 F-16 fighter jets which Pak had ordered (and paid for). Pakistan complained bitterly that the Pressler Amendment seems to apply only to Pakistan, not India and was not fair. President Clinton, wanting to restore relations b/w two countries, agreed that Pressler Amendment had led to unfair treatment and suggested that if Pakistan stopped producing Weapon grade Uranium he would agree to sale of F-16s.

In 1995, Defence secretary, William Perry, visited Pakistan and declared that Pressler Amendment had been a mistake. In 1996, Brown amendment authorised the US govt. to reimburse Pak for F-16 payments and provide $388 million in military equipment. The thaw in the relations was further highlighted when First Lady Hillary Clinton and her daughter, Chelsa, visited Pakistan in 1996.

Thus, relations b/w two varied in the period, but were generally good. However, it could be said that they were not successful because USA would probably have preferred to have allied with India and only had good relations with Pak when events meant it was necessary.

Q: Why did Pakistan lose 1965 and 1971 wars? [7]

Ans: In 1965, Pakistan had never expected a full scale war with India over Kashmir, and therefore the Lahore was caught unprepared. One reason for this failure was that India was stronger and more determined than Pakistan had realised. Another major reason was that during the war, the USA and Britain had both placed an embargo on selling weapons to the two combatants. As Pakistan was dependent on the West for parts to service its military equipment, it was hit harder than India.

By 1971 the balance of military power had definitely tilted in favour of India. It had a stronger economy and larger population and was able to develop an army considerably larger than Pakistan could put in the field. India could also rely on support from Soviet Union after signing the treaty of Peace, Friendship and Commerce in August 1971. Whereas Pakistan was not having any such support from any of its Allies.

Moreover, Pakistan lost the war in 1979, as India took advantage of civil war in East Pakistan. The Indian army attacked East Pakistan. The ensuing was led to the downfall of Decca and the subsequent surrender of Pakistani forces with a larger number of Pakistani soldiers being taken as prisoners by India.

Thus, because of these reasons Pakistan lost 1965 and 1971 wars.

Q: What was the Kargil Conflict? [4]

Ans: In April 1999, Muslim Kashmiri guerrillas crossed the Line of Control and captured the Indian occupied towns of Kargil and Drass. The Pakistan govt. denied any involvement. In May, India launched a counter-attack during which it fired over 250,000 shells and rockets. Two of its aircrafts crossed into Pakistani air space and one was shot down. During May and June 1999, Pakistani forces were pushed back and eventually Sharif was persuaded by US President Clinton to withdraw all Pakistan forces from Indian held territory behind the Line of Control. The Kargil conflict proved to be a major blow to Pakistan-India relations.

Q: How successful was Pakistan in its relationship with India between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer.

Ans: Given the historical background to partition, the dispute over assets and Kashmir conflict, it is perhaps not surprising that India-Pakistan relations have rarely been good.

The relations between the two states have mainly been plagued by failure. Since partition, the main thorn between the good relations have been the Kashmir issue. Kashmir has been the main bone of contention between the two over which the two sides had fought various wars. In 1948, there was a war because of the forceful accession of Hindu Maharaja to India. UNO ordered a cease-fire, promising to hold plebiscite, but over till now, no such plebiscite has been organised. In addition, in 1965, there was another war on the same issue, resulting from the Pakistani tries to free Kashmir by force as after the Indo-China war, the Pakistan army had believed that these events showed that Indians had ‘no stomach’ for a fight. Thus, began to think in terms of military solution to the Kashmir dispute. The Indians, however, dropped their objections to western military aid and began a vigorous rearmament campaign after the humiliating defeat they suffered at the hands of Chinese. The stage was now set for a military showdown between India and Pakistan.

The two sides also went to a war in 1971 over Bangladesh-East-Pakistan Crisis. India had the golden chance to cut down it rivals. They availed the opportunity and separated the two wings of its enemy. India also had grievances over Pakistan’s involvement in Defence Pact with USA, but USA confirmed India that this was only against any communist aggression.

Pakistan was shocked when India tested its nuclear device in Rajasthan in 1974. As Pakistan’s relations with India further deteriorated, both countries stepped up their nuclear development programmes. In May 1998, India shocked the world by testing five nuclear devices. Just a few weeks later, Pakistan detonated its own nuclear devices in Ras Koh hills. This initiated the nuclear arms race between the two states which continues to this date.

In early 1980s, India accused Pakistan in helping separatist elements of Sikhs who were demanding a separate homeland, Khalistan, for Sikhs. Pakistan rejected this allegation. Later on, the aftermath of the assassination of Indira Gandhi had adverse effects on relations with India. Rajiv, son of Indira Gandhi, again accused Pakistan for his mother’s killing. Both sides were almost on a brink of an undeclared war. India started ‘exercises’ near borders of Pakistan, but it was a great master stroke of Zia which saved the two countries from war.

The Kargil conflict in 1999, further pumped up the Indo-Pak hostility. In April 1999, Muslims Kashmiri guerrillas crossed the Line of Control and captured the Indian occupied towns of Kargil and Drass. The Pak govt., however, denied any involvement. In May, India launched a counter-attack during which it fired over 250,000 shells and rockets. Two of its aircrafts also crossed into Pakistan air space and one was shot down. The Kargil conflict was a major blow to Pakistan-India relations.

Other problems like division of assets and Canal Water Dispute also contributed to the poor relations b/w the two.

On the contrary, there were also some successes in the relations. In April 1950, there was a formal agreement, called the ‘Minorities Agreement’, signed between Liaqat Ali Khan and Nehru. According to the agreement, both governments were responsible to protect the religious minorities in their states and to encourage them to stay on rather than to migrate. Moreover, another agreement had also been reached in December 1948 which allowed for a neutral tribunal to demarcate the exact borders between East Bengal and Assam.

The Tashkent agreement of 1966 after 1965 war helped the two states to agree to resolve disputes peacefully. The Simla Agreement was also a major step in developing good ties between the two states. India agreed to free 90,000 war prisoners of Pakistan and Pakistan agreed to talk over Kashmir issue bilaterally and not going to the world community. The Indus water treaty, 1960, also helped in establishment of good relations.

Thus the two states have had very poor relations since 1947. Pakistan had remained unsuccessful in having good ties with India. This is due to mainly Kashmir issue which they have failed to resolve. The nuclear arms race had made it nuclear flash point in the world.

Q: How successful was Pakistan’s relationship with the USSR between 1947 and 1999? Explain your answer. [14]

Ans: Relations between Pakistan and USSR have undergone many ups and downs between 1947 and 1999. Russia has always tried to have sincere relations with Pakistan but Pakistani leaders never thought in this context.

From 1947 to 1950, Russia had remained neutral in her relations with Pakistan. In 1950, USSR invited Liaqat Ali Khan to visit Moscow. However, at the same time USA invited him to visit Washington. Liaqat Ali Khan chose to go to Washington. This, clearly, snubbed the Soviet Union and in turn relations between the two suffered for some time. By 1950, the Soviet Union started to back over with India over the Kashmir issue. When Pakistan joined SEATO and CENTO in the mid-1950s, the Soviet Union took this as a firm declaration in favour of the USA. This greatly worsened the relations between USSR and Pakistan. In 1955, USSR officially backed India over the Kashmir problem and promised whole-hearted support; moreover, USSR also began to Press Pakistan over the Afghan claims in ‘Pakhtoonistan’.

However, Soviet Union always desired to have good relations with Pakistan. In 1956, it offered Pak aid together with a promise to build a steel mill, if only Pak broke off its alliance with USA. Pakistan refused to do so. The relations reached the rock bottom when in May, 1960, an American Spy Plane (U2) flew from an American base near Peshawar and was shot down while flying over Russia. Russia gave a serious warning to Pakistan.

On the contrary, the relations after 1960s greatly elevated. In 1961, the soviets, as a gesture of goodwill, agreed to begin exploring for oil in Pakistan. When India accepted help from USA in its war with China, the effect was to drive Pakistan and the USSR closer together. When China began to give Pak aid in 1963, the soviets decided to take even more decisive steps to ally with Pakistan. In 1963, it loaned Pakistan £11 million and shifted from its previous inclination towards India over Kashmir to neutral stance.

The relations sky-rocketed when Ayub Khan paid an official visit to Soviet Union and further agreements on trade and oil exploration were reached. After the Pakistan-India was of 1965, the Tashkent Agreement took place through the efforts of Russian president.

Relations, however, were at a very low ebb during 1969-71 because Pakistanis effort to bring USA and China closer greatly annoyed USSR. In 1971 Russia fully supported India with military aid and Pakistan lost its East Wing.

The Period of 1972-77 was a period of good relations because Z. A. Bhutto visited Russia in 1972. Bhutto had no liking for USA. Russia had become neutral on Kashmir issue and Russia helped Pak in setting up a steel mill at Karachi which has been a great asset to Pakistan – thanks to the good relations between the two.

However, the improved relations were short-lived. The soviet occupation of Afghanistan in 1979 caused an open rift when Pakistan accepted American aid to support the mujahidin rebels. Although Zia visited Moscow in 1984 for the funeral of Andropov, he got a cold reception. Later that year, the Soviet Union, which also disapproved of Pak’s nuclear programme began bombing raids on Pakistan. Hostile relations continued until 1988, when the soviets finally withdrew from Afghanistan.

Several high levels of exchanges of trips have taken place between the two sides since 1991. Russian foreign minister in April, 1993, and first Russian deputy foreign minister in 1994 visited Pakistan. A broad range of bilateral issues were discussed during these visits. Russia had moved away from its unconditional support to India on all issues. Pak and Russia cooperated in UN sponsored talks at Tajikistan. The Russian president extended the invitation to Pak’s Prime Minister to visit Moscow. In April 1998, Pak PM visited Moscow. During this visit many important bilateral issues were signed.

On the whole, Pakistan was not successful in keeping good relations with USSR because periods of improved relations were short lived.

Q: How successful the governments have been in the Islamisation of Pakistan between 1947 and 1988? Explain your answer. [14]

Ans: The Constituent Assembly passed the Objectives Resolution in March 1949 which was the first step towards constitution of Pakistan. This resolution made several references to Islamic laws like social justice, equality and religious freedom, and Muslims were also enabled to lead their lives according to Islamic teachings. But the religious wings were not satisfied with these provisions. They wanted complete implementation of the Shariah Laws. Together with other reasons, the resolution was withdrawn in November 1950 for further considerations.

Khawaja Nazimuddin revised the proposals of the same resolution in 1952. Now the Head of the state would be Muslim over 40. He would appoint a board of religious scholars who would advise on central and provincial legislation. In case of objections on religious grounds, the bill had to be sent back to the assembly for amendment. Now fears arose in many circles that the Religious Advisory Board would have power of veto over new laws. The Prime Minister withdrew the proposals in 1953.

When the first constitution of Pakistan was prepared in 1956, it changed the name of Pakistan to Islamic Republic of Pakistan. The Religious Advisory Board was still retained for monitoring the legislation with right of veto. The constitution also declared that the President was to be a Muslim.

Ayub Khan was a bit liberal. He introduced Muslim Family Laws Ordinance according to which marriages and divorces were to be registered and minimum age limits were defined for marriage. Women were empowered. In spite of opposition from religious wings, these laws were imposed. He established Advisory Council of Islamic Ideology to advise him the religious aspects of policies. He also founded Islamic Research Institute. These institutes were just symbolic; he never welcomed their proposals.

In the 1973 constitution, Bhutto gave no consideration to the implementation of Shariah Laws. It was almost based on the 1956 constitution. Islamic committee was still set up, but it could only advice on legislation. After the 1977 elections when Pakistan National Alliance was protesting on the roads against rigging, he tried to appease the religious factions by banning gambling, restricting sale of alcohol and declaring Friday to be the weekly holiday. These were just desperate actions. However, there was also a little success on road of Islamization. Both President and Prime Minister were to be Muslims and had to believe in the finality in of Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Legislation also gave a definition of a ‘Muslim’.

General Zia ul Haq tried to be a pro-Islamic leader. He established Federal Shariat Court in 1979 to consider existing laws and judgments in the light of Islamic principles. He set up a Federal Shariat Court to consider existing laws and legal judgements and decide if they were in keeping with Islam. He introduced Hudood Ordinances which gave Islamic punishments to people involved in drinking, gambling, theft and adultery. A new offense of disrespect of Holy Prophet was introduced, with imprisonment or a fine as a punishment for offenders. He also introduced the Council of Islamic Ideology to suggest ways for bringing the legal system closer to Islamic ideology. He also introduced Zakat and Ushr Ordinances imposing 2.5% wealth tax and 5% tax on agricultural income respectively. Islamiyat and Pakistan Studies were made compulsory subjects in the schools and colleges. Memorizers of the Holy Quran were given extra marks in the Civil Service examinations. Arabic language was promoted through TV and Radio programs. No woman was allowed to appear on the TV without scarf. Many people from the civil society raised a voice against some of his actions, but in many areas he has support from Ulamas

Of course the reign of Zia ul Haq saw maximum implementation of Shariah Laws. He won the support of many religious political parties, ulamas and religious factions.

In conclusion it can be said that although several and serious efforts for Islamisation were made, but implementation of clauses of Islamisation remained in question. Desired results were not achieved because of lack of will and proper implementation. The fact remains that governments have not been successful in their efforts for Islamisation in Pakistan.

Q: Why did Pakistan face so many problems with the provision of education between 1947 and 1999? [7]

Ans: Pakistan governments have been facing many problems with the provision of education due to many reasons.

According to independent estimates in 1998, less than 30% of the Pakistan population is literate, and female literacy is estimated at 14% nationally. This was due to lack of financial investment in education by successive govt. who viewed defence as being more important.

During the first three decades after independence, education in Pakistan was accorded a very low official priority. In 1960, Pakistan was only spending 2% of budget on education which, by 1990, had grown to 2.9%. However, even after the mass nationalization of 1970s, state expenditure on education never rose above 3% of the budget.

A major problem has faced primary education with serious under-funding compared to secondary and higher education (in 5-Year-Plan 1956, 56% educational budget was allocated to secondary compared to only 18% for primary!) Little money remains for non-staff costs to spend on the primary sector.

A number of problems have, therefore, dogged all official attempts at improving the literacy rate. Rates of absenteeism and drop-outs are very high. More than half the students joining primary school leave within 5 years. One-third of girls drop out within a year. Education is also very expensive in Pakistan. Children are expected to buy their own books and uniform, and many children drop out of schools. In the secondary sector many private schools have been formed which have been for the more wealthy parts of the population which further emphasises the gap between the rich and the poor.

However, educational reforms were enforced from time to time. In 1972, all private schools and colleges were nationalized. But the policy had a devastating effect on the standard of teaching and standard of education in the country.

Q: How successful have the successive governments been in the provision of health and education in Pakistan since 1947 to 1999? [14]

Ans: Pakistan governments have been facing many problems with the provision of Health and education since 1947 to 1999.

According to independent estimates in 1998, less than 30% of the Pakistan population is literate, and female literacy is estimated at 14% nationally. This was due to lack of financial investment in education by successive govt. who viewed defence as being more important.

During the first three decades after independence, education in Pakistan was accorded a very low official priority. In 1960, Pakistan was only spending 2% of budget on education which, by 1990, had grown to 2.9%. However, even after the mass nationalization of 1970s, state expenditure on education never rose above 3% of the budget.

A major problem has faced primary education with serious under-funding compared to secondary and higher education (in 5-Year-Plan 1956, 56% educational budget was allocated to secondary compared to only 18% for primary!) Little money remains for non-staff costs to spend on the primary sector.

A number of problems have, therefore, dogged all official attempts at improving the literacy rate. Rates of absenteeism and drop-outs are very high. More than half the students joining primary school leave within 5 years. One-third of girls drop out within a year. Education is also very expensive in Pakistan. Children are expected to buy their own books and uniform, and many children drop out of schools. In the secondary sector many private schools have been formed which have been for the more wealthy parts of the population which further emphasises the gap between the rich and the poor.

However, educational reforms were enforced from time to time. In 1972, all private schools and colleges were nationalized. But the policy had a devastating effect on the standard of teaching and standard of education in the country.

Another important problem was that policies introduced by one government were abandoned by the next govt. For example, the scheme of ‘Nai Roshni Schools’ was started in 1985 to educate a large number of children up to primary level. But the scheme was discontinued by the next elected govt. of Benazir in 1988. There has also been a lack of schools. A govt. report in 1989 admitted that over 60%of govt. school building were unsafe.

On the other hand, provision of health has also remained an enormous problem for Pakistan. One of the many problems inherited by the state of Pakistan was the very poor health care available to public. Since 1947, there has been a rapid increase in population. The annual growth rate in Pakistan in 1990 was estimated to be over 3% per year. At the same time, life expectancy is only 55 years for both men and women and maternal mortality is also one of the highest in the world. Furthermore, child mortality rate is also rampant: at 90 per 1000 births. Children die of diseases like diarrhoea, measles and whooping cough etc. Government estimates in 1990 suggest that 200,000 children a year died because of diarrhoea. Malnutrition is also prevailing in many parts of Pakistan, especially rural areas.

The belief in traditional medication is also one of the major causes for poor health in Pakistan. People usually trust on ‘Hakeems’ and Homeopathic medicines in rural areas, instead of going to professional qualified doctors. In addition, there has been a lack of doctors, nurses and hospitals since 1947. Public health expenditure was around 0.75% of budget in 1990. With such low investment it is indeed very difficult to improve health facilities in Pakistan.

National health planning started in 1960s, but the first large national health plan was introduced in 1972 with establishment of BHU (for every 20,000 people) and RHCs (for every 60,000 people). However, the reform failed due to poor management and lack of funding.

By the 1970s, nine Unani medical colleges were established. However, indigenous midwives (dais) are still an overwhelming choice for rural and urban women during childbirth and have escaped any formal regulation and training. There are over 8000 NGOs registered in health sector in Pakistan such as Edhi Foundation which is both effective and well-run.

Thus, on the whole, Pakistan governments have remained unsuccessful in the provision of health and education as the statistics show a very poor condition in both of the sectors.